|German Gymnastic Federation Division Ringtennis
|South African Tenniquoits Board
|Tennikoit Federation of India
|Bangladesh Tenniquoits Federation
|Polish Ringo Society
|Club Athletico Paulistano — Brazil
|New Zealand Naturist Federation
|Pakistan Tenniquoits Federation
|Argentine Alternative Sports Committee (Codasports)
|Belarussian Ringo Federation
|Kenya Ringo Association
|Nepal Tenniquoits Federation
Cameroon Tenniquoits Federation
|Basque Country Ringtennis Association
|United States Ringtennis Federation
|Ghana Ringtennis Federation
The basic goal of Tenniquoits is to throw a ring of solid rubber with one hand over a net into the opposing half of the court in such a wise, that the ring hits the ground or the opponent is unable to catch, control or return the ring.
While the continuous alternation of throw and catch of the ring during a match, the players of Tenniquoits combine a variety of different techniques to shoot and types of defensive and offensive shots with a skilful manner to catch a receiving ring with one hand.
A typical offensive shot for example, is a long shot with spin, thrown as a kind of lop into the back part of the opposing half of the court or a short shot with spin, thrown narrow across the net into a corner of the front part of the opponent’s half of the court. A typical defensive shot for example, is a high throw without spin, thrown into the back part of the opponent’s half of the court in order to keep the opponent away from the net.
To present an attractive, fast and sportsmanlike match, all actions of the players have to be executed in fluidly motions without unacceptable delays during the process from the receiving to the delivery of the ring.
In order to dominate the match, it is essential to gain an advantageous position close to the net, from where the player is capable to attack with an effective shot. The move to the net is realised by catching a high and long played ring with a stretched arm above the head or behind the body while the player jumps forward. A match between offensive players is characterised by a fight of position and ring with the permanent alternating attempt to press the opponent and open space at the corners of the opposing court half, where to make the point.
For tactical reasons it could be also successful for a player to restrict the main efforts to catch the ring and return it with a defensive throw into the back part of the opponent’s court half. With this, a defensive player is able to force the opponent to make mistakes or to make points by counterattacks.
Tenniquoits, which is also known as Ringtennis, contains all elements of a challenging sport: Technical and tactical aspects as well as demands to the manual condition, agility and creativity of its players.
The International Tenniquoits Rules are obliging for all international events under the leadership of the World Tenniquoits Federation. Moreover this rule-set could be a helpful guideline for other countries, which are currently not organised concerning this sport, to introduce Tenniquoits into their landscape of sports and to become a competitive member of the World Tenniquoits Federation.
Rule No. 1: Court Measurements (Diagram 1: Page 16)
1.1 Singles-Court: The singles-court is a rectangle of 12.20 m in length and 4.60 m in width. The two lines measuring 12.20 m are called side-lines and the two lines measuring 4.60 m are called base-lines. The line dividing the court into two equal halves of 6.10 m in length is called centerline. The singles-court for men and the singles-court for women have exactly the same size.
1.2.1 The men-doubles-court has exactly the same size as the singles-court.
1.2.2 The women-doubles-court has exactly the same size as the singles-court.
1.2.3 The mixed-doubles-court is a rectangle of 12.20 m in length and 5.50 m in width. The two lines measuring 12.20 m are called side-lines and the two lines measuring 5.50 m are called baselines. The line dividing the court into two equal halves of 6.10 m in length is called center-line. The doubles-court (men and women) has exactly the same size as the singles-court.
1.3 Neutral Zone: The two parallel lines with a distance of 0.90 m from the middle of the centerline are called dead-lines. The zone from the middle of the center-line to the dead-line measures 0.90 m in length and 5.50 m (mixed-doubles-court) or 4.60 m (singles-court and doubles-court, men and women) in width and is called neutral zone. Together for both court halves the neutral zone has a dimension of 1.80 m in length and 5.50 m (mixed-doubles-court) or 4.60 m (singlescourt and
doubles-court, men and women) in width but counts as unlimited in its width concerning the meaning of Rule No. 19.2. The dead-lines are not part of the neutral zone.
1.4 Playing Zone: The zone between the side-lines, the base-line and the dead-line at each half of the court measures 5.20 m in length and 5.50 m (mixed-doubles-court) or 4.60 m (singles-court and doubles-court, men and women) in width and is called playing zone. The side-lines, the baseline and the dead-line are part of the playing zone.
1.5 Safety Zone: A zone with a distance of minimum 2.00 m from the boundary (measured from the outer edge of the side-lines and the base-lines) is called safety zone and has to be marked with a line, a strained band or a comparable delineation.
1.6.1 All mentioned lines with the exception of the center-line and the side-lines of the neutral zone have to be marked clearly in the same colour and to contrast with the surface of the court. The width of all lines has to be between 3 and 5 cm.
1.6.2 The center-line and the side-lines of the neutral zone are allowed to be left out. In this case the center-line remains its denotation as an imaginary line.
1.6.3 The dead-lines are allowed to be extended up to maximum 2.00 m beyond the measurements of the court and count as unlimited concerning the meaning of Rule No. 19.2, if marked or not.
Rule No. 2: Preparation of the Court
2.1 Consistence: The consistence of the Court is allowed to be out of the materials plastics, concrete or other cemented materials, clay or red sand. It must be warranted, that the surface is qualified for fast and energetic movements and even to avoid injuries.
2.2 Location: It is acceptable to play international Tenniquoits competitions on courts, which are placed outdoor or indoor.
2.3 Floodlight: In case international Tenniquoits competitions are conducted outdoor at times with no or not enough daylight, it is acceptable and necessary to illuminate the court with floodlight.
Rule No. 3: The Net
3.1 Height and Position: The net is positioned in a height of 1.65 m above the center-line and divides the court into two equal halves. The above specified height has to exist at any point of the upper edge of the net, measured from the floor.
3.2 Quality and Measures: The net is a close meshed canvas of cotton or synthetic fibre with a length between 5.50 and 6.10 m (meshed area) and a depth between 0.40 and 0.70 m. In case the meshed area of the net is longer than 5.50 m, the extension beyond the side-lines has to be equal in both directions. The upper edge of the net should have a different colour than the rest of the net.
3.3 Fixation: The net has to be fixed with a cord or hanger at two vertical posts of firm steel, respectively one placed on each side of the court upon the marked or imaginary center-line with a distance of approximately 30 cm from the side-lines. The posts shouldn’t outrange a height of
1.70 m (measured from the floor) and must be qualified to warrant a strained net according to Rule No. 3.1.
Rule No. 4: The Ring
4.1 Material and Quality: The ring is produced of white or yellow solid rubber without air inside and has a plain and firm surface, which qualifies it for fast rotations without losing stability during the flight through the air.
4.2 Weight and Dimensions: The ring, authorised by the World Tenniquoits Federation, must have a weight between 190 and 220 grams, an inner diameter between 11 and 12 cm, an outer diameter between 17 and 18 cm and a thickness of 3 cm (diameter). The thickness is allowed to vary plus or minus 0.5 cm.
Rule No. 5: Singles
5.1 Men-Singles: The discipline men-singles is played by two male players, opposing each other on a single-court.
5.2 Women-Singles: The discipline women-singles is played by two female players, opposing each other on a single-court.
Rule No. 6: Doubles
6.1 Men-Doubles: The discipline men-doubles is played by two parties, opposing each other on a doubles-court. Each party consists of two male players.
6.2 Women-Doubles: The discipline women-doubles is played by two parties, opposing each other on a doubles-court. Each party consists of two female players.
6.3 Mixed-Doubles: The discipline mixed-doubles is played by two parties, opposing each other on a doubles-court. Each party consists of one male and one female player.
Rule No. 7: Competitions
7.1 Individual Championships: International individual championships are conducted for mensingles, women-singles, men-doubles, women-doubles and mixed-doubles. The arrangement of individual championships has to take place on basis of the International Playing Modes and Competition Regulations (Part I, Part II) of the World Tenniquoits Federation.
7.2 Team Championships: International team championships are conducted for teams of ten players (five men and five women players) and contain the disciplines men-singles, womensingles, men-doubles, women-doubles and mixed-doubles. The arrangement of team championships has to take place on basis of the International Playing Modes and Competition Regulations (Part III) of the World Tenniquoits Federation.
7.3 International Matches: International matches without championship character could be test matches between two national selections or individual tournaments for men-singles, womensingles,
men-doubles, women-doubles and mixed-doubles. The arrangement of such events has to take place on basis of the International Playing Modes and Competition Regulations (Part IV) of the World Tenniquoits Federation.
7.4 Age Groups: Competitions as specified in Rule No. 7.1 and 7.2 are only established for one class, which is not age-restricted. Competitions as specified in Rule No. 7.3 are allowed to be conducted for juniors and seniors. The fixing of the age-restriction for the junior class is done by mutual agreement in the forefront of a relevant event. The senior class is not age-restricted.
Rule No. 8: Play time and Extensions
8.1 Play time: The regular play time of a match lasts 20 minutes and is divided into two half times, each with the duration of 10 minutes. The play time is equal for all above stated disciplines and classes (age groups).
8.2 Extra time: In case a competition is played on knock-out-basis and a match ends with a draw, the regular play time has to be extended. The extra time of a match lasts 10 minutes and is divided into two half times, each with the duration of 5 minutes. The extra time is equal for all above stated disciplines and classes (age groups).
8.3 Final extension: In case the extra time ends with a draw, the match has to be extended for a second and last time. This final extension is not bound to time limits, but ends after one player or party scores two points more than the opponent player or party.
8.4 Break: The time between two half times, between the regular play time and the beginning of the extra time and between the extra time and the final extension is called break. The duration of a break should not outlast 3 minutes.
8.5 Acoustical Signals: The duration of acoustical signals, given through words or tones in order to start or stop a half time, are not part of the play time or extra time. What means, that it is not possible to score during the duration of an acoustical signal.
Rule No. 9: Handling of Interruptions
9.1 Interruptions with Time-out: Circumstances, caused by a higher force (e.g. heavy weather or breakdown of the lighting), which make it impossible to continue the match in a regular way, lead to an interruption with stoppage of the time (time-out). The interruption has to be signalised and terminated by the organising staff or the referee.
9.2 Interruptions without Time-out: Situations, which irritate or hinder a match, but could be cleared immediately within a short time (e.g. a second ring falls into the court area), lead to an interruption without stoppage of the time. The interruption has to be signalised and terminated by the referee while the time is running.
9.3 Injuries (Medical Time-Out): Injuries may lead to interruptions with time-out. If one of the players is bleeding or injured, the match is allowed to be interrupted by the referee for maximum 3 minutes to clean player and ring from blood or to provide medical care to stop a bleeding wound or to provide medical care for other injuries. After the interruption the player has to continue
immediately or to abandon the match. Only one interruption with time-out because of injury is allowed in a match per each player.
9.4 Resumption: The resumption of the match after an interruption with time-out, must take place in consideration of the already expired time. The time measurement of the remaining time has to be done by the organising staff or the referee in terms of Rule No. 9.1 and by the referee only in terms of Rule No. 9.3.
Rule No. 10: Scoring of Points
10.1 Basic Understanding: Scoring a point is possible in an active or passive way. Scoring active means, the main action, which leads to a point, goes out from the player, who wins the point. Scoring passive means, the action, which leads to the point, is caused by an unforced fault of the opposing player or party.
10.2 Active Scoring:
10.2.1 A player, who is capable to place the ring onto the floor of the opposing playing zone without violating the rules of the game, scores a point. Each successful action in this sense is rewarded with one point by the referee.
10.2.2 A player, who is capable to force the opponent to commit a fault, scores a point. Each successful action in this sense is rewarded with one point by the referee.
10.3 Passive Scoring: A player or party, whose opponent commits an unforced fault, scores a point.
10.4 Direct Scoring: The chance to score a point is not dependent on the right to serve. Both sides, the serving side and the receiving side, are capable to score the point.
10.5 Faults: Each fault, as specified below in this rule-set, has to be penalised by the referee through awarding one point to the opposite side.
Rule No. 11: Score and Results
11.1 Score: The referee has to announce the score after each scored point loud and clearly. First the points of the serving player or party, second the points of the receiving player or party.
11.2.1 The player or party with the most points at the end of a match is the winner of this match. In case both sides scored the same amount of points at the end of a match, which is not conducted on knock-out-basis (cp. Rule No. 8.2), the final result is a draw.
11.2.2 If one player or party is not present to start a match in due time or a match has to be finally abrupt because of an injury or misbehaviour of players or other involved persons, the referee has to abandon the match with the final result of 20:0 points for the present or rather remaining player or party.
Rule No. 12: Valuation of Matches
12.1 Knock-Out-System for Individuals: The knock-out-system is the favoured system for the conduction of individual competitions for singles and obliging for the World Championships for singles. The valuation of matches is well-regulated within the International Playing Modes and Competition Regulations (Part I).
12.2 Round-Robin-System for Teams: The round-robin-system is the favoured system for the conduction of team competitions and especially designated for the World Championships for teams. The valuation of matches is well-regulated within the International Playing Modes and Competition Regulations (Part III).
12.3 Knock-Out-System for Teams: A knock-out-system for teams is only allowed in exceptional cases. In case an organiser of an international Tenniquoits event conducts a complete competition or parts of a competition for teams on basis of the knock-out-system, the valuation of matches is comparable to the regulations for knock-out-based individual competitions.
12.4 Round-Robin-System for Individuals: In case an organiser of an international Tenniquoits event conducts a competition for individuals on basis of the round-robin-system (e.g. a competition as mentioned in Art. 27 of the International Playing Modes and Competition Regulations), a won match is awarded with 2 points, a draw with 1 point for each player (party) and a lost match with 0 points. The player with the most match points is the winner of the group or respectively of the competition. The round-robin-system is not allowed for the World Championships for singles, but the favoured system for men-doubles, women-doubles and mixeddoubles.
12.5 International Tests: The valuation of matches concerning international tests is wellregulated within the International Playing Modes and Competition Regulations (Part III).
Rule No. 13: Preparations before a Match
13.1 Involved Persons: The called players, one referee and as the case may be one coach per side and up to two linesmen are permitted to participate at a match. No other persons than players, referee, coaches, linesmen and in exceptional cases members of the organising staff or medical care are allowed to enter the court area (incl. safety zone) directly before or during a match.
13.2 Clothes: All players have to wear sportive clothes and footgear in a proper condition. The jersey of each player has to contain writing or an emblem, which identifies the nationality of the player. Players of the same party or team have to wear identical clothes.
13.3.1 Before the match starts, the referee has to accomplish a toss-up between the two players or parties (e.g. by tossing a coin). The winner of the toss-up is allowed to select the half of the court, where to play first. The loser of the toss-up opens the match with the first serve from the opposite half of the court. The ring is supplied by the referee.
13.3.2 In case an extra time or a final extension is necessary, the referee has to execute a new tossup in the same form and with identical meaning as stated in Rule No. 13.3.1.
13.4 Notification of the Coach: Each of the two player or parties are entitled to appoint a coach. The coaches are attending the match and have to be noted by name at the scoreboard of the referee before the match starts.
13.5 Positions: All involved persons have to enter their starting positions for the match immediately after the toss-up. The coaches have to take position at the side of their player or party with a distance of at least 1 m behind the base-line.
Rule No. 14: Playing Actions – Serving the Ring
14.1 Basic Understanding: The service is a one-handed throw of the ring from behind the baseline over the net into the opposite half of the court with the aim to start the play time, the extra time, the final extension or to continue the match after a point has been scored. Excepting the first service of the play time, the extra time and the final extension, which has to be executed by the loser of the toss-up, all other services have to be executed by the player or party, who scored the preceding point.
14.2 Service at Doubles: Both players of a party are allowed to execute the service without a fixation of a succession or limitation of number. There is no restriction for the serving player to deliver the service to a specific opposing player or court space of the opposing half of the court. Both players of the opposing party are allowed to receive the service without a fixation of a succession or limitation of number. This rule is valid for all doubles disciplines (men-doubles, women-doubles and mixed-doubles).
14.3 Service Fault I (Passover): The serving player touches the playing zone with the feet or any other part of the body during the ring leaves the hand.
14.4 Service Fault II (Foot fault): The serving player jumps while the service is executed. At least one foot must contact the ground behind the base-line during the ring leaves the hand.
14.5 Service Fault III (Net): The ring touches the net or the posts during the service.
14.6 Service Fault IV (Delayed service): The serving player has to execute the service immediately after a point has been scored. Unnecessary delays and demonstrative slowness, caused by the serving player or party, are not acceptable.
14.7 Repetition of Service: In case the service has been executed too hurried after a scored point, so that the referee was not capable to control its correctness, the referee is authorised to demand the repetition of the service.
14.8 Position during Service: All players excepting the serving player have to position themselves with both feet inside their half of the playing zone (cp. Rule No. 1.4) during the service is executed.
Rule No. 15: Playing Actions – Throwing the Ring
15.1 Basic Understanding: The complete process of a throw consists of the motion to lead the ring to the release and the flight of the ring through the air. The process starts directly after the catch of the ring and ends with the reception of the ring by the opponent or with the touch of the ring onto the floor, if the opponent is not capable to reach the ring. Each throw has to be executed in a fluently
motion with one hand in order to send the ring over the net into the opposite half of the playing zone.
15.2 Throw Fault I (Outside): The thrown ring contacts the floor outside the opposite playing zone (cp. Rule No. 1.4) without being touched before by an opposing player. Crucial for the decision of the referee, whether a ring is outside or not, is the first point of contact of ring and floor.
15.3 Throw Fault II (Faulty Release):
15.3.1 The player does not use the hand in order to send the ring over the net.
15.3.2 The player uses both hands simultaneously in order to send the ring over the net.
15.3.3 The player uses both hands successively or needs more attempts in order to send the ring over the net.
15.3.4 The ring touches the floor of the own half of the playing zone during the player executes the throw.
15.3.5 The player changes the ring from one hand into the other once or more times after the catch.
15.3.6 In case of doubles, both partners are involved in throwing the ring over the net simultaneously or successively.
15.4 Throw Fault III (Wobble): The ring has no calm flight through the air and is wobbling or shaking more than its thickness of 3 cm.
15.5 Throw Fault IV (Net): The ring starts to wobble after touching the net (cp. special handling for service: Rule No. 14.5).
15.6 Throw Fault V (Posts): The ring touches the posts during the throw.
15.7 Throw Fault VI (Downward shot): The player throws the ring directly downward by pushing or pulling the ring with the hand from above. Crucial for the decision of the referee, whether a ring is a downward shot or not, is the movement of the ring at the very first moment after it leaves the hand. In case the ring has no upward tendency or does not retain the same height for the first moment and distance of its flight, but has a prompt downward movement, the throw should be strictly penalised as a downward shot.
15.8 Throw Fault VII (Delayed shot): The player interrupts or delays the fluent motion to throw the ring directly after the catch or during the further run up to the release. In all cases, where the motion has a stoppage or is delayed with demonstrative slowness, the throw has to be penalised by the referee as a delayed shot. There is no difference, if the interruption or the delay is caused by technical failings or a deliberate action to feint the opponent.
15.9 Throw Fault VIII (Two way movement): The player changes the current motion sequence of an initially intended or indicated throw abruptly and commences a new direction for this throw or moves arm or wrist repeating back and forth while leading the ring to the release. These kinds of motions sequences, which don’t get along with the principle of a fluently executed throw, could irritate or feint the opponent and have to be penalised by the referee as a two way movement.
15.10 Throw Fault IX (Body Touch):
15.10.1 The ring touches a part of the player’s body during the throw excepting the hand, which executes the throw. The term ‘hand’ describes the area between finger tips and forearm (exclusively elbow).
15.10.2 In case of doubles, the ring touches the body of the partner during the throw.
15.11 Throw Fault X (Steps):
15.11.1 In case the player touches the floor with both feet during the reception of the ring, it is not allowed to complete subsequently one step before the ring leaves the hand for the throw. A step represents a floor contact with one foot and could be a lunge or a simple touch.
15.11.2 In case the player touches the floor with one foot during the reception of the ring, it is not allowed to complete subsequently more than one step before the ring leaves the hand for the throw. A step represents a floor contact with one foot and could be a lunge or a simple touch.
15.11.3 In case the player has no contact with the floor during the reception of the ring, it is not allowed to complete subsequently more than two steps before the ring leaves the hand for the throw. A step represents a floor contact with one foot and could be a lunge or a simple touch.
15.12 Throw Fault XI (Turnaround):
15.12.1 A turnaround (full or nearly full twist around the own longitudinal axis of the body with the ring in the hand) is generally allowed but a fault, if the player completes more than the allowed number of steps (cp. Rule 15.11).
15.12.2 After the player completes a turnaround without objecting Rules No. 15.8 and 15.11, he is allowed to throw an attacking ring.
15.12.3 A turnaround after a difficult catch is allowed and regulated by Rule No. 16.9.2 and
15.13 Throw Fault XII (Ceiling): The ring touches the ceiling during the throw.
15.14 Acceleration of the Ring: The swinging motion of the player’s arm in order to accelerate the ring is allowed to be executed in front of the body, at the side of the body, above the head or behind the body and may be performed as a kind of wheel.
15.15 Spinning the Ring: The player is allowed to accelerate the ring by spinning it with wrist and hand. Through pressing the ring between index finger and thumb while releasing it after a quick back and forth motion of the wrist, the ring receives a fast rotation or twist.
15.16 Spectrum of Shots: A player is free to use the whole spectrum of different shots, which may be categorised as offensive or defensive shots, long or short thrown shots, high or flat thrown shots, long-line or cross-court shots, shots with or without spin, backhand or forehand shots. It is allowed to play each kind of shot at any time with the restrictions of Rule No. 19.3 and 19.4 only and without violating the rules concerning throw faults as stated above in this rule-set.
15.17 Relevance for Service: The Rules No. 15.2, 15.3.1, 15.3.2, 15.3.3, 15.3.4, 15.3.6, 15.4, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.12.1, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15 and 15.16 are also relevant for the service.
16.1 Basic Understanding: The catch of the ring has to be done one-handed with the aim to avoid that the ring touches the floor inside the playing zone of the defending player or party. The complete process of the catch starts with the first physical contact of hand and ring and ends with the safe control of the ring. The process of catching is at least over, when the player starts to initialise the motion to throw.
16.2 Catch Fault I (Inside): The receiving player is not capable to catch the ring and the ring contacts the floor inside the receiver’s half of the playing zone (cp. Rule No. 1.4) without being touched before. Crucial for the decision of the referee, whether a ring is inside or not, is the first point of contact of ring and floor.
16.3 Catch Fault II (Faulty Reception):
16.3.1 The player does not use the hand in order to catch the ring.
16.3.2 The player uses both hands simultaneously in order to catch the ring.
16.3.3 The player uses both hands successively in order to catch the ring.
16.4 Catch Fault III (Touched): The receiving player touches the ring but is not capable to catch or control it and the ring contacts the floor inside or outside the receiver’s half of the playing zone.
16.5 Catch Fault IV (Body Touch):
16.5.1 The ring touches a part of the player’s body during the catch excepting the hand, which executes the catch. The term ‘hand’ describes the area between finger tips and forearm (exclusively elbow).
16.5.2 In case of doubles, the ring touches the body of the partner during the catch of the receiving player.
16.6 Catch Fault V (Delayed catch): The player interrupts or delays the motion during the catch of the ring, measured from the point of time, when the player contacts the ring, up to the point of time, when the player starts to initialise the throw. In all cases, where the motion in this span of time is delayed with unnecessary or demonstrative slowness, the catch has to be penalised by the referee as a delayed catch.
16.7 Re-Catch of a Ring: In case the receiving player touches the ring without being capable to hold the ring tight or control it, he is allowed to catch the ring with the same hand once again only. In case of mixed-doubles, the partner is permitted to catch the touched ring once again only or both players are permitted to catch the touched ring simultaneously once again only.
16.8 Simultaneous Catch at Doubles: In case of mixed-doubles, the receiving players are allowed to catch the ring simultaneously, but only one player of the party is allowed to return the ring. A simultaneous catch is only allowed in exceptional situations (e.g. to catch a surprising offensive shot or as mentioned in Rule No. 16.7).
16.9 Difficult Catch:
16.9.1 In case of a difficult catch, when the player is constrained to jump to the ring and subsequently falls onto the ground, he has to release the ring during the process of standing up.
16.9.2 In case of a difficult catch, when the player tumbles and is temporarily off balance after the catch or can’t stop a run after the catch of the ring immediately, he is allowed to complete maximum two more steps (than allowed by Rule No. 15.11) to correct himself to a safe position, before he returns the ring.
16.9.3 It must be obviously, that the difficult catch is necessary to reach the ring and is not to play for time. After reaching the safe position (cp. Rule No. 16.9.2) the ring must be executed immediately without further delays or steps.
16.9.4 In case of a difficult catch, the Rules No. 15.8 and 16.6 are not binding. A short delay, which lies in the nature of the above stated situations, is acceptable.
Rule No. 17: Playing Actions – Rally of the Ring
17.1 Basic Understanding: The alternate process of catch (receiving of the ring) and throw (returning of the ring) between the opposing players is called “rally” of the ring. A rally of the ring starts with the service and lasts till an interruption (cp. Rule No. 9) or one of the mentioned faults occurs. In case of no interruption and no fault, the rally of the ring is limited by the play time or extra time, which is signalised by an acoustical signal (cp. Rule No. 8).
17.2 Ring in Play: During the rally of the ring, the ring is “in play”.
Rule No. 18: Playing Actions – Succession of Play at Doubles
18.1 Free Succession at Mixed-Doubles: The players of the mixed-doubles are not bound to a fixation of a succession concerning the playing of the ring during a rally.
18.2 Alternate Succession at Men-Doubles and Women-Doubles: The players of the mendoubles and women-doubles are bound to an alternate succession concerning the playing of the ring during a rally. A player is not allowed to play the ring twice consecutively during a rally. This means, the players of the two opposing parties have to play the ring alternately among them during a rally. The breach of the alternate succession has to be treated by the referee as a fault (Faulty succession).
Rule No. 19: Playing Actions – Other Elements within a Match
19.1 Change of Court Sides: After the first half time of the play time or the extra time the players have to change the sides of the court. The winner of the toss-up opens the second half time with the first serve. There is no change of the sides of the court during the final extension.
19.2 Passover: The players are not allowed to pass over the dead-lines with their feet or any other part of their body (inclusive clothes) during the ring is in play (inclusive service). A passover has to be treated by the referee as a fault (Passover).
19.3 Once High: In case of a re-catch (cp. Rule No. 16.7), a simultaneous catch (cp. Rule No.
16.8) or a difficult catch (cp. Rules No. 16.9.1 and 16.9.2) the returning player has to throw the ring without spin high into the back third of the opponent’s playing zone, otherwise it is a fault (Faulty return).
19.4 Twice High: In case of an interruption (cp. Rules No. 9.1, 9.2 and 9.3) the ring has to be thrown without spin high, once from each player or party respectively, into the back third of the opponent’s playing zone to proceed the match after the interruption, otherwise it is a fault (Faulty resumption). The disadvantaged player or party at the point of time, when the reason for the interruption occurs, is called upon by the referee and has to begin with the first high throw.
19.5 Re-Service: In case the reason for the interruption occurs directly after the service before the ring has been send over the net for the first time, the referee has to instruct a repetition of the service in order to continue the match after the interruption.
19.6 Resumption with Service: In case the reason for the interruption occurs between two rallies, the match proceeds after the interruption by the service of the player or party with the last scored point.
19.7.1 The coach is not allowed to give instructions to the player or party during the rally of the ring. The coach is allowed to give instructions to the player or party during the ring is not in play and the break only (cp. Rules No. 17.1 and 17.2). Moreover it is allowed for the coach to inform the player or party about the remaining time during the whole match without leaving his position (cp. Rule No. 13.5). A misconduct of the coach has to be penalised by the referee as a fault (Forbidden coaching).
19.7.2 The coach may ask for explanations concerning decisions of the referee or the organising staff during the break or after the match.
Rule No. 20: Misbehaviour of Players and other involved Persons
20.1 Unsportsmanlike Behaviour:
20.1.1 A player or coach, who criticises or argues the decisions of the referee or the linesmen, behaves in an unsportsmanlike manner.
20.1.2 A player or coach, who deliberately delays the match during the ring is not in play, behaves in an unsportsmanlike manner.
20.1.3 A member of a delegation, who gives instructions to a player or party of his federation during the match, behaves in an unsportsmanlike manner.
20.2 Offending Behaviour: A player or coach, who addresses the referee, a linesman, an opposing player or a spectator by means of insulting words or gestures, behaves in an offending manner.
20.3 Aggressive Behaviour: A player or coach, who executes a physical attack against the referee, a linesman, an opposing player or a spectator, behaves in an aggressive manner.
20.4.1 The player or party of the side, in whose name the unsportsmanlike misconduct occurred, has to be warned by the referee once without being penalised with a fault. In case of any further kind of unsportsmanlike behaviour, the player or party has to be penalised with a fault.
20.4.2 The player or party of the side, in whose name the offending misconduct occurred, has to be penalised with a fault for each case without warning.
20.4.3 In case a player or party has been sanctioned with a fault because of an unsportsmanlike or offending behaviour during one match for three times, the match has to be stopped and the opponent player or party wins the match.
20.4.4 A player or coach, who conducts in an aggressive manner, has to be penalised with expulsion from the match, the match has to be stopped immediately and the opponent player or party wins the match. In cases of serious aggressions, the failing person has to be excluded from all further matches of an international team competition, tournament or championship.
Rule No. 21: Arrangements after the Match
21.1.1 The coach is authorised to protest against decisions of the referee or the organising staff. The protest has to be registered at the scoreboard by the referee immediately after the match with specification of the reason and signed by the objecting coach.
21.1.2 A jury of appeal should be build ad hoc to allow or to overrule a raised protest by means of simple majority.
21.1.3 The jury of appeal is a body of three persons, who should have high expert knowledge concerning Tenniquoits. At least one person has to belong to a national federation, which is not involved in the protest. If it is not possible to compose an impartial jury of appeal, the protest has to be delegated to the arbitration court of the World Tenniquoits Federation (cp. Statutes of the WTF Art. 34) and the final result of the protested match remains valid concerning the current event.
21.2 Shake Hands: The player or players, who lost the match, should congratulate the player or players, who won the match. All involved players and coaches should shake hands with eachother and the referee as a sign of sportsmanship and thank the referee for mastering the match.
Rule-Section VI: Authority and Responsibilities of the Referee
Rule No. 22: Authority of the Referee
22.1 Main Authority: The referee is officially authorised by the World Tenniquoits Federation to direct the match in an impartial wise from the beginning to its end, obliged to the International Tenniquoits Rules and the International Playing Modes and Competition Regulations only. The referee’s interpretation of the rules has to be respected and should not be reason for discussions during the match. The decisions of the referee are binding for all involved persons and the noted result of the match is final with the exception that a regularly raised objection will be allowed by the jury of appeal (cp. Rule No. 21.1).
22.2 Special Authority: The referee is authorised to decide on the basis of his experience and expert knowledge in cases of situations or matters, which are not regulated inside the International Tenniquoits Rules or International Playing Modes and Competition Regulations. Moreover the referee is allowed to overrule decisions, which are made by the organising staff, but not acceptable in his opinion concerning a regular course of a match.
Rule No. 23: Responsibilities before the Match
23.1 Linesmen: The referee is allowed (but not obliged) to appoint and to position up to two linesmen to support decisions concerning inside and outside. The linesmen are authorised to announce their decisions only, if requested by the referee, who reserves to himself the final decision concerning inside and outside.
23.2 Court and Equipment: The referee has to control the regular condition of the court, the net and the ring. The scoreboard, which should be standard of the World Tenniquoits Federation, has to be checked concerning the named players and coaches.
23.3 Toss-Up: The referee is responsible for a timely toss-up before the match.
23.4 Uniform: The referee has to wear a proper uniform, which is approved by the World
Tenniquoits Federation and has to control the clothes of the involved players (cp. Rule No. 13.2).
23.5 Time Measurement: The referee has to use a clock simultaneously to the organising staff, which makes him capable to take over the time measurement into his hands, if necessary (e.g. interruptions with time-out).
Rule No. 24: Responsibilities during the Match
24.1 Position: The referee should be positioned next to one of the posts without entering the court (as defined in Rules No. 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3) and without hindering the players during the match.
24.2 Announcement of Decisions: The referee has to announce the decisions with loud and clear voice, using the technical terms as stated in this rule-set.
24.3 Announcement of Score: The referee has to announce the score with loud and clear voice in English language (cp. Rule No. 11.1).
24.4 Handling of Interruptions: The referee is responsible to identify reasons for interruptions as soon as possible. In cases, where a sufficient reason for an interruption with time-out is given, but the interruption is not announced by the organising staff, the referee is responsible to announce the interruption with time-out (cp. Rule No. 9.1).
24.5 Handling of Misbehaviour: The cognition and classification of misbehaviour (cp. Rule No. 20) is subject to the discretion of the referee, who should try to becalm the involved persons and has to decide cool-headed, which kind of misbehaviour is existent and which kind of punishment is necessary.
24.6 Explanation of Decisions: In order to avoid a loss of play time, the referee is obliged to give explanations concerning his decisions or interpretations of rules during the break or after the match only (cp. Rule No. 19.7.2).
Rule No. 25: Responsibilities after the Match
25.1 Signatures at the Scoreboard: One player or coach of each side and the referee are obliged to sign the final result of the match at the scoreboard.
25.2 Handling of Protests: In case a protest has been raised in a regularly form, the referee is responsible to initiate the formation of a jury of appeal in cooperation with the organising staff. Moreover the referee has to be available for requests concerning the protest.