Indian Rules has vast amendments by the various game developer

Indian Rules


Rule 1: Playing Equipment’s and Their Specifications.

1. Court and Playing Equipment:
1.1 Court Measurements: (See Diagrams 1 & 2) The court shall be a rectangular, hard, even surface made of clay, red sand, concrete or any other cementing material which enables fast movements and free from foreign bodies which are likely to cause injury to players. It shall measure 12.2 metres in length and 5.5 metres in breadth. The two lines measuring 12.2M each shall be called the Side Lines and the other two lines measuring 5.5M each shall be called Base Lines. A line drawn at the centre between the two side lines shall be called the Centre Line, which shall be directly below the net. This Centre Line divides the court into two equal halves of 6.1 X 5.5M.
1.2 The court measurement shall be as per WTF (ITR Rule No. 1) i.e., For Singles: Length 12.20 metres and width 4.60 metres. For Doubles: Length 12.20 metres and width 5.50 metres Koits: White or Yellow Colour (ITR Rule No. 4). i.e., 190 to 200 grams weight and Inner Diametre 11 to 12 cms and Outer Diametre 18-19 cms. Thickness with a variation of + or – 0.5cms.
1.3 Single-Court: The Single Court is a rectangle of 12.20m in length and 4.60 m in width. The two lines measuring 12.20m are called side-lines and two lines measuring 4.60m are called base-lines. The line dividing the court into two equal halfs of 6.10m. is called centre-line.
1.4 Doubles Court: The doubles court is a rectangle of 12.20 m in length and 5.50 m in width. The two lines measuring 12.20 m are called side-lines and the two lines measuring 5.50m are called base-lines. The line dividing the court into two equal halfs of 6.10 m in length is called centre-line.
1.5 Dead Court: One parallel line drawn on either side of the Centre Line 0.9M away from it, shall be called deadlines. The area bound within the Dead Lines and Centre Line is known as Dead Court. The Dead Court shall thus measure 5.5 M X 0.9 M on either side of the Centre Line and over all measure 5.5 X1.8 M.
1.6 Neutral Zone: The two parallel lines with a distance of 0.9m from the middle of the centre-line are called deadlines. The zone from the middle of the centre-line to the dead-line measures 0.90 m. in length and 5050 m. (doubles-Court) or 4.60 m. (singles-court)in width and is called neutral zone. Together for both court halfs the neutral zone has a dimension of 1.80 m. in length and 5.50 m. (doubles-court) or 4.60 m. (singles-court) in width but counts as unlimited in its width concerning the meaning of Rules No. 19.2. The dead-lines are not part of the neutral zone.
1.7 Zone Lines: The two lines drawn from the centre of the Dead Lines on either side and connected to the centre of the Base Line, shall be called Zone Lines. Thus, each zone shall have an effective playing area of 5.2 X 2.75M and overall 5.2 X 5.5M on either side of the Centre Line i.e., on either side of the net. The Zones shall help see whether all the four players are keeping their court positions while service is taken in Doubles.
1.8 Playing Zone: The zone between the side-lines, the base¬line and the dead-line at each half of the court measures 5.20 m. in length and 5.50 m. (double-court) or 4.60 m. (single-court) in width and is called playing zone. The side¬lines, the base-lines and the dead-lines are part of the playing zone.
1.9 Restricted or Caution Line: One more parallel line drawn on either side of the Centre Line 3.05 Metres. Away from it or 2.15 Metres from Dead Lines. All Lines shall be of 5 cm. width.

Rule 2: Playing Equipment:

2.1 Net: The net is a mesh of 70 Cm. Wide and 6.1 M long, vertically placed over the axis of the Centre Line to divide the playing space into two parts. The net shall be made of 2.5 Cm square meshes with a two-fold white cotton canvas of 10 cm. Wide. Each fold of 5 cm. is sewn along the full length of the net over a cord or a flexible rope respective Side Line with the Centre Line. Both the side bands shall be considered part of the net. Height and Position: The net is positioned in a height of 1.65 m. above the centre-line and divides the court into two equal halfs. The above specified height has to exist at any point of the upper edge of the net, measured from the floor.
2.2 Tape: Two tapes of cotton material 15 Cm. wide & 70cm long shall be fastened, one on each side of the end of the net perpendicular to the intersection of the respective side Line with the Centre Line. Both the side bands shall be considered part of the net.
2.3 Antennas: The Antennas are two flexible rods made of a solid bamboo, fiberglass or similar material 1.06M long and 1.5 to 3.8 Cm in diametre. The antennas shall be marked with 5 Cm bands of contrasting colours preferably red and white or black and white. They are fastened on the outer edge of each vertical Side Band extending 50 Cm above the top of the net. They are considered part of the net and mark its side limits.
2.4 Height of the Net: The height of the net shall be 1.8 M and be measured from the centre of the playing court with a Measuring Rod. The two ends of the net (over the Side Lines) must be at the same height from the playing surface and may not exceed by more than 2.5 Cm. For Sub-Junior section height of the net shall be 1.67 M or 5.6 Ft.
2.5 The net height shall be as per WTF specification, i.e., 1.65 metres at the centre of the net.
Quality and measures: The net is a close meshed canvas of cotton or synthetic fibre with a length between 5.50 and 6.10 m. (meshed area) and a depth between 0.40 and 0.70 m. In case the meshed area of the net is longer than 5.50 m. the extension beyond the side-lines has to be equal in both directions. The upper edge of the net should have a different Colour than the rest of the net, 3.3 Fixation: The net has to be fixed with a cord or hanger at two vertical posts of firm steel, respectively one placed on each side of the court upon the marked or imaginary centre-line with a distance of approximately 30 cm from the side-lines. The posts shouldn’t outrange a height of 1.70 m. (measured from the floor) and must be qualified to warrant a strained net according to Rule No. 3.1.
2.5.1 Material and Quality: The ring is produced of white or yellow solid rubber without air inside and has a plain and firm surface, which qualifies it for fast rotations without losing stability during the flight through the air.
2.5.2 Weight and dimensions: The ring, authorised by the World Tenniquoit Federation, must have a Weight between 190 and 220 grams, an inner diametre between 11 and 12 cm, an outer diametre between 17 & 18 cm and a thickness of 3 cm (diametre). The thickness is allowed to vary plus or minus 0.5 cm.

Rule 3: Poles

Poles: The poles for fastening the net shall be made of mild steel tubes of 6 Cm outer diametre. The thickness of the wall of the tubes may be from 1.2 to 1,3mm. The height of the poles above the floor level shall be 1.9M. A pulley or hook may be fixed to the top of the poles to secure the top cord of the net. When nets with steel stranded wire are used suitable sprockets shall be fixed to the poles at an appropriate point, for obtaining the required tension of the net and height. The poles should be fixed 45Cm away from the centre of the Side Lines. The poles shall be lowered below the ground level to a depth of 60Cm. The poles shall be painted with distinct contrasting colours in bands of 23Cm. White and Black or White and Red are recommended.

Rule 4: Koit

Koit: The koit shall be made of white thin rubber sheet filled with foam rubber and shall weigh 198 to 226 grams. The koit should be neither too hard to cause injury to the players, nor too soft to get squeezed often between the fingers and palm.The outer dia of the koit shall be 16Cm and the inner dia 10 Cm. The thickness shall be 3 Cm with a variation of not more than 5mm.

4.1 Safety Zone: A zone with a distance of minimum 2.00 m. from the boundary {Measured from the outer edge of the side¬lines and the base-line) is called safety zone and has to be marked with a line, a strained band or a comparable delineation.
4.2 Preparation of the Court:
4.3 Consistence: The consistence of the Court is allowed to be out of the materials plastics, concrete or other cemented materials, clay, or red sand. It must be warranted, that the surface is qualified for fast and energetic movements and even to avoid injuries.
4.4 Location: It is acceptable to play international Tenniquoits competitions on courts, which are placed outdoor or indoor.
4.5 Floodlight: In case international Tenniquoits competitions are conducted outdoor at times with no or not enough daylight, it is a acceptable and necessary to illuminate the court with floodlight. 


Rule 5: Section II: Disciplines of Tenniquoits

Rule-Section II: Disciplines of Tenniquoits
5. Age groups: Competition as specified in Rule No.7.1 and 7.
Are only established for one class, which is not age- restricted. Competitions as specified in Rule No. 7.3 are allowed to be conducted for juniors and seniors. The fixing of the age-restriction for the junior class is done by mutual agreement in the forefront of a relevant event. The senior class is not age-restricted. (Rule-Section III: Duration of a Tenniquoits match)
5.1.1 Singles
5.1.2 Men section – Singles: The discipline men-singles is played by two male players, opposing each other on a single-court.
5.1.3 Women section Singles: The discipline women-singles is played by two female players, opposing each other on a single-court.
5.1.4 Doubles
5.1.5 Men section – Doubles: The discipline men-doubles is played by two parties, opposing each other on a doubles-court, each team consists of two male players.
5.1.6 Women section – Doubles: The discipline women-doubles is played by two parties, opposing each other on a doubles- court, each team consists of two female players.
5.1.7 Mixed -Doubles: The discipline mixed-doubles is played by two teams, opposing each other on a doubles-court. Each team consists of one male and one female player.
5.2 Competitions
5.2.1 Individual championships: International Individual championships are conducted for men singles and women- singles. The arrangement of individual championships has to take place on basis of the international Playing modes and competitions Regulations (part 1) of the world tenniquoits Federation.
5.2.2 Team championships: International team championships are conducted for teams often players (five men and five women players) and contain the disciplines men-singles, women singles, men-doubles, women-doubles and mixed doubles. The arrangement of team championships has to take place on basis of the International Playing Modes and Competition Ragulations Part II) of the World Tenniquoits Federation.
5.2.3 International Maches: International Maches without championship character could be test matches between two national selections or individual tournaments for men-singles and women singles. The arrangement of such events has to take place on basis of the International Playing Modes and Competion Regulations (part III) of the World Tenniquoits Federation.


Rule 6: Participants - Their duties, rights and responsibilities

6.1.1 Registration and Composition of teams for all National and Zonal Championships: Each team shall consist of 6 players, one Manager and one Coach and Women team shall consist of 6 players, one Manager and one coach. But the team shall have at least one Woman either as Manager or as Coach. 6th player shall be eligible to play in Mixed doubles. It is mandate that all Registered players must play in the championship.
6.1.2 All players shall be registered with the Tenni-koit Federation of India through their respective State Associations or other affiliated units.
6.1.3 Only the players recorded on the Score Sheet on the basis of entry forms shall be allowed to participate in the matches. No change shall be allowed on any account.
6.1.4 One of the players who is registered and entered for the Championship/Tournament shall be appointed as Captain of the respective team. 

Rule 6.2 Players:
6.2.1 Outfit: All players of both sexes shall wear proper uniform consisting of T-shirt’s/Jerseys and Shorts and a pair of canvas shoes. The T-shirt’s/Jerseys shall be prominently stenciled/ painted with Arabic Numerals on the front and back. Shoes must be light and playable with rubber or leather soles without Heels. Violation of this provision may lead to disqualification of a player/team from participation in any Championship/ Tournament.

Rule 7: Duties of Players

7.1 Players should accept the decisions of referee(s) with sportsmanlike behaviour.
7.2 Players should make themselves aware of the rules of the game.
7.3 The conduct of the participants should be in accordance with the spirit of fair play and as mentioned below.
7.3.1 They shall show respect and courteous attitude towards referee(s), opponents and spectators
7.3.2 They shall avoid actions and attitudes which are patently aimed at influencing the decisions of the referee or to cover up faults commited by them or their teams.
7.3.3 They shall avoid actions & attitudes aimed at prolonging time¬outs or deliberate delays of the game with ulterior motives.
7.3.4 They shall avoid giving overt & covert instructions to players while the game is in progress.
7.3.5 Team Captain:
a) The Team Captain is responsible for the conduct & discipline of all the team members.

b) During the match, the Team Captain will function as Game Captain while on the Court. He is the only person authorized to ask for any explanation on the application Or interpretation of the rules. If the explanation does not satisfy him, he must immediately protest to the referee & his protest is to be registered on the Score Sheet at the end of the match.


Rule 9: Toss and Warm Up

9.1 Toss is to be taken by the referee outside the court before the commencement of the match.
9.2 Warming up should also be done outside the court.
9.3 Teams are to be escorted by the referee and his assistants.

Rule 10: Game Interruption

10.1 Official interruptions of the game are those stoppages of the game that are caused by natural phenomena like bad light, heavy rains, storms etc., and ordered as such by the referee and shall include the time-outs granted by the referee on request by the player/coach as per rules hereinafter mentioned.
10.1.1 Handling of Interruptions
10.1.2 Interruptions with time-out: Circumstances, caused by a higher force (e.g. heavy weather or breakdown of the lighting), which make it impossible to continue the match in a regular way, lead to an interruption with stoppage of the time (time¬out). The interruption has to be signalised and terminated by the organising staff or the referee.
10.1.3 Interruptions without time-out: Situations, which irritate or hider a match, but could be cleared immediately within a short time (e.g. a second ring falls into the court area), lead to an interruption without stoppage of the time. The interruption has to be signalised and terminated by the referee while the time is running.
10.1.4 Injuries: Injuries only lead to interruptions with time-out, if one of the players is bleeding. The match is allowed to be interrupted by the referee for maximum 3 minutes to clean player and ring from blood or to provide medical care to stip a bleeding wound. Concernin off other cases of injuries, the player has to continue immediately or to abandon the match.
10.1.5 Resumption: The resumption of the match after an interruption with time-out, must take place in consideration of the already expired time. The time measurement of the remaining time has to be done by the organising staff or the referee in terms of Rule No. 9.1 and by the referee only in terms of Rule No.9.3.
10.2 A maximum of one time-out is permitted in each set.
10.3 An interruption shall be granted only on request by the player/ coach through the use of respective official signal.
10.3.1 Each time-out shall have duration of 30 seconds.
10.3.2 One time-out shall be charged to the Team/player who prolongs the interruption after the referee has signalled to resume the game.
10.3.3 A Team/Player shall on no account leave the court during the time-out.
10.4 The Coach may also speak to his Team/Player without trespassing the boundaries of the court.
10.5 After request of the players, the referee may authorize medical attention to be provided on the Court.
10.6 A Team/Player requesting more interruption than is allowed, will receive a warning by show of Yellow Card.
10.7 In the event of serious injury/accident to a player, the referee shall stop the game and give 3 minutes to the injured player to recover. He may at his discretion restart the match before the expiry of 3 minutes accordingly as the case may warrant.
10.7.1 If the injured player does not recover within 3 minutes the set and the match shall be awarded to the opponent(s).
10.8 Interruption Faults:
a) First Time – Warning
b) Repetition – Point/to opponent set/matches as the case may be.

10.8.1 A Team/Player commits a fault when it/he prolongs a time¬out after being called to resume the game by the referee.
10.8.2 When he requests a second time-out in a particular set.
10.8.3 When he is not ready to resume the match after having been charged with onetime-out.
10.9 Prolonged Interruption during the match:If any unforeseen circumstances prevent a match from being conducted, the referee, the organizers and the jury, if present, shall decide the measures to be taken to restore normalcy.

10.9.1 On resumption of a match after normalcy is restored, the score will be continued from where it was left prior to the interruption(s). The result(s) of the previous set(s) if any will be intact. In other words prolonged interruptions) caused by factors beyond anybody’s control shall not give any advantage to any player/Team.

10.9.2. In the event of unforeseen circumstances or inclement weather etc., the following rules shall be adopted
a) If the interruption is in the first half of the game (first 10minures) the game should be replayed from the beginning ignoring the points scored by teams/players.
b) If the interruption is in the second half of the game (i.e., second half or completion of first 10 minutes) the game should continue with the scores as they stood at the end of first half.

Rule 11: Game Results

11.1 Scoring a Point: A Team/Player shall score a point, both positive and negative i.e., either he may complete a rally successfully and take a point or opponent may give a point either by failure to receive and return the koit properly or by committing fouls which are penalized by the referee.

Scoring of Points and Match Results
11.1.1. Scoring of Points
11.1.2 Basic understanding:
scoring a point is possible in an active or passive way. Scoring active mean, the main action, which leads to a point, goes out from the player, who wins the point. Scoring passive means, the action, which leads to the point, is caused by an unforced fault of the opposing player or party.

11.1.3 Active Scoring:
11.1.4 A Player, who is capable to place the ring onto the floor of the opposing playing zone without violating the rules of the game, scores a point, each successful action in this sense is awarded with one point by the referee.

11. 1.5. A player, who is capable to force the opponent to commit a fault, scores a point. Each successful action in this sense is awarded with one point by the referee.
11.1.6 Passive Scoring: A player or team, whose opponent commits an unforced fault, scores a point.
11.1.7 Direct scoring: The chance to score a point is not dependent on the right to serve. Both sides, the serving side and the receiving side, are capable to score the point.
11.1.8 Winner(s) of a Set: The winner(s) of a set is/are the player/ team that scores 21 points first. When deuce is called i.e., when the score is 20 each, the winner(s) will be the team/ player who secures 22nd point first.
11.2 Match Winner:
11.2.1 The match winner shall be the team/player who wins two sets out of three sets.

11.2.2 If a team gets depleted for any reason whatsoever the match shall be awarded to the opponent team.
11.2.3 If after receiving a warning from the referee, a team/player refuses to play, it is declared by default the set and match shall be awarded to the opponent(s).
11.2.4 If a team/player fails to be present on the Court at the appointed time for unjustifiable reasons, the team/player shall be declared in default and the set and match awarded to the opponents).
11.2.5 Interval between sets and change of courts:
a) Two minutes is the interval time limit between first and second and 3 minutes between second and third sets. During this time limit change of courts are made. The teams must be formed on their base lines at the moment they are called by the First Referee to resume the match.
b) In the deciding set once a team reaches 11 points the courts are changed without any delay.


Rule 12,13,14 & 15: Playing Actions and Faults

The koit in play must have upward direction when released from the hand. Referees must strictly penalize absence of such tendency without fail.
12.1 All matches are decided by best of 3 sets, each set consisting of 21 points. In the event of 20 each players scoring 22nd point first wins the set.
12.2 The player is allowed to dive on the ground to retrieve the koit. In such an event the player must release the koit in the process of getting into the normal position. Player is also allowed to take support from the other hand while getting back to the normal position. Reason: to add thrilling effect to the spectators To maintain the fluid motion of the koit exchange. The caution line has no relevance hence removed.
12.3 In case the points scored by players/teams are equal at the completion of 20 minutes the game will be extended by another 10 minutes with 5 minutes each half, player/team shall change the court. If the score remains equal at the end of 10 minutes, the game shall be decided by the breaking with one point (the player/team securing the very next point will be declared as winner.
12.4 The game is set in motion with the start of Service. The choice of Service/Court by a player or a team is decided by the toss of the coin by the First Referee. The player/team starting Service in the first set shall receive the First Service in the Second set. In the third set if any there shall be no toss for the choice of Service/Court. The player/team starting the Service in the first set shall start the Service again in the Deciding third set.
12.5 The time limit for each set is 15 minutes. After the expiry of 15 minutes the server should take the point within 9 rallies failing which the point shall go to the opponent(s).
12.6 The game shall be for 20 minutes duration, and player/s shall change court after 10 minutes (2 half with 10 minutes each). The winner will be the one player/team who scores higher number of points to his/to their credit.
12.7 Play time and Extensions
12.7.1 Play Time: The regular playtime of a match lasts 20 minutes and is divided into two half times, each with the duration of 10 minutes. The play time is equal for all above stated disciplines and classes (age groups).
12.7.2: In the event of unforseen circumstances or inclement weather etc., the following rules shall be adopted.
a) If the interruption is in the first half of the game (first 10minures) the game should be replayed from the beginning ignoring the points scored by teams/players.
b) If the interruption is in the second half of the game (i.e., second half or completion of first 10 minutes) the game should continue with the scores as they stood at the end of first half.
12.7.3 Extra time: In case a competition is played on knock-out- basis and a match ends with a draw, the regular play time has to be extended. The extra time of a match lasts 10 minutes and is divided into two half times, each with the duration of 5 minutes. The extra time is equal for all above stated disciplines and classes (age groups).
12.7.4 Final extension: In case the extra time ends with a draw, the match has to be extended for a second and last time.
This final extension is not bound to time limits, but ends after one player or party scores two points more than the opponent player or party.
12.7.5 Break: The time between two half times, between the regular play time and the beginning of the extra time and between the extra time and the final extension is called break. The duration of a break should not be more than 3 minutes.
12.7.6 Acustical Signals: The duration of acustical signals, given through words or tone in order to start or stop a halftime, are not part of the play time or extra time. What means, that it is not possible to score during the duration of an acustical signal.
12.7.7 A rally is complete if the koit completed one to and fro journey.
12.7.8 Service shall always be cross-court diagonally, but the first return of a Service may be anywhere in the opposite court.
12.7.9 While serving, a player should neither touch nor cross the base line before releasing the koit. He may take a run if he chooses so long as his legs are away from the base line and the koit is not released.
12.7.10 Fore hand and back hand services are allowed, vertical flat services are allowed. But line cutting, wobbling, shaking, etc., which are foul in nature are not allowed.

13. No over hand shots in whatsoever form (Forehand, backhand) will be allowed either during service or in play.
13.1 A koit touching the net during the Service will not qualify for a ‘let’ and the point shall be awarded to the opponent(s).
13.2 A player shall have five Services in a row, no matter whether he takes or losses the point. Service is always started from
The right half court of the Server. After a point is scored, the next Service is taken from the left half court. This process shall continue until the end of fifth serve. There shall be a side over now and the next five services shall be taken by the opponent and he too shall start the Service from the right half court and complete five Services alternatively. Thus, the side-over take place after the end of five services by a player.
13.3 Backward Service with up tendency without any fault shall be allowed.
13.4 When the score is deuce at 20 all, Service will change hands for every point. In other words, a player will have only one Service in turns instead of normal five Services. After this stage, all Services are taken only from the right half court of the Server irrespective of the position of the score. Likewise, when 9 rallies are introduced after the expiry of 15 minutes allowed for the completion of a set, Service will change hands for every point and all Services shall be taken only from the right half court of the server irrespective of where the score stands.
13.5 The koit shall be received and released with one hand either hand being permissible for a particular delivery, as long as there is no fault while delivering the koit.
13.6 All deliveries shall have an upward tendency.
13.7 Relatively constant or motionless hazard shall not qualify for a re-service. But any disturbances caused to a player by sudden occurrences which are beyond his control, shall qualify for a re-service at the discretion of the first referee.
13.8 A koit striking any boundary line either in Service or in rallies, except the side-lines of the Dead Court shall be deemed to
Be right. The first pitch of the koit shall be taken into account to decide whether the koit has landed in or out of the court.
13.9 After the introduction of the 9 rallies, there shall be no further time limit for the completion of a set.
13.10 No player at any time during play shall stand in the Dead Court or tread its boundary lines during play and violation shall be penalized. A player shall, however, enter the Dead Court to pick a koit that has come to rest after duly called foul by the First Referee.
13.11 A koit hitting the antenna pole or sailing away from it and falling into the court shall be deemed out.
13.12 A koit is prohibited from entering through the net (meshes) and falling into the court.
13.13 A net broken during the rally will be eligible for a re-service.
13.14 A koit broken during the rally will be eligible for a re-service.
13.15 A player is prohibited from taking the support of the post or other playing equipment’s while receiving or releasing the koit.
13.16 In case of serious injury to a player or for any other reason the First Referee may call official time-out after the koit becomes dead on completion of that particular rally. If the player is unable to continue to play within 3 minutes of the occurrence of the injury, he shall be deemed to have lost the Match by default. Likewise, in the Doubles when one of the partners in a team retires hurt, the team shall lose the match by default, as no substitution is allowed.

14. Umpire shall have discretion to allow a maximum of 5 minutes in case of injury to player/s during the play, however this injury time shall be within 20 minutes of the game. If the injured player/s failed to recover and resume play the opponent player/team shall be declared as WINNERS.
14.1 During Service and rallies, wobbling and shaking are not allowed. All deliveries should be perfect and graceful as a result of wrist work. A koit wobbling or shaking after hitting the top cord of the net is, however not penalized.
14.2 The Doubles/Mixed Doubles shall be played alternately i.e., a player should not receive and return the koit twice consecutively during play. All the four players of the two opposing teams shall receive and return the koit alternatively among themselves until a point is scored.
14.3 The Captain of the team, which is to serve in the first set by virtue of either winning or losing the toss, should notify the scorer as to who will serve first. The Captain of the opposing team shall notify the scorer as to who will receive the first service.
14.4 At the commencement of each set, Service shall be started from the right half court of the server. After a point is scored, no matter which team has got the point, the next service shall be from the left half court of the server. This process shall continue until five services are completed by a player.
14.5 The Partner of the server shall stand in the adjacent court while service is made. He can occupy any place on his court after the koit has left the hand of the server.
14.6 The court position of the players of the opposing team at the time of each Service shall not change for every point scored,
Until five services are completed. After the Service is made, they can, however, stand at any place in their court.
Let it be assumed that A and B, C and D are partners of two opposing teams. The team consisting of players A & B after winning the toss elects to serve. A takes up the first service;

B will stand in the adjacent left half court when service is made. In the opposing team C receives the service and D will stand in the adjacent half court while service is made. After a point is scored, A will take service from the left half of the court and D in the opposing team will receive it. This process is continued until five services are completed.

All the four players shall receive and return the koit alternately among themselves until a point is scored. In the example shown above, A serves to C; C shall return to B; B shall return to D; and D shall return to A. Until a point is scored this pattern will continue. The second service shall be from A to D; D shall return to B; B shall return to C and C shall return to A. This pattern shall continue until a point is scored. Therefore, out of five services, for three points the pattern will be A to C; C to B; B to D; and D to A; For the remaining two points the pattern will be A to D; D to B; B to C; and C to A.

After five services are completed by A, C will serve to B first and the pattern will be C to B; B to D; D to A and A to C. For the next service C will serve to A and the pattern will be C to A; A to D; D to B and B to C.
After 5 services are completed by C; B will take his 5 services and he will serve to D first.
After B completes five services, D will take his service and he shall serve to A.

In the beginning second set, D will serve to B first. In case there is third set, B will serve to D first, at the beginning of the set.

15.1 The following are the foul strokes which are penalized:
1) Wobbling 2) Shaking 3) Fore hand back hand shot in Caution Lines / Restricted Area 4) Throwing 5) Delay 6) Pushing 7) Carrying 8) Body Touch 9) Pressing 10) Dead-koit 11) Stepping 12) Squeezing 13) Baulking 14) Jumping.
15.2 Lateral or longitudinal revolving of the koit is called wobbling.
15.3 Violent vibrations of the koit caused as a result of failure to impart wrist work is called Shaking.
15.4 Flinging the koit illegitimately in the opponent’s court is called Throwing.
15.5 There shall be a continuous motion while catching or releasing the koit. The motion shall not be marred in the process of release of Koits, failing which is delay.
15.6 Shoving the koit with a jerk is called Pushing.
15.7 If the koit is received above the head or slightly behind it and the arm is swung backward in half-a-cart-wheel formation before release, it is Carrying.
15.8 If the koit, while receiving or releasing, touches any part of the body of a player inclusive of the garments worn, with the exception of palm and fingers, it is called Body Touch.
15.9 If the koit is thrust downward with the help of either the indicator or other finger during release, it is called Pressing.
15.10 If the koit lands without any spin or force, it is called Dead Koit.

15.11 If after receiving a koit a player takes one or more steps and then releases the koit, it is called Stepping. But a step can be taken after the koit is released.

15.12 While receiving or releasing the koit, if it gets crushed or
Compressed between the palm and fingers, it is called Squeezing. Otherwise known as Punching.
15.13 If the follow-on of the koit is not continuous but is changed
Instantaneously to some other direction involving delay, it is called Baulking.
15.14 If both the feet of the player are in the air at the time of releasing
The koit is called Jumping. But, Jumping is permitted after processing receiving the koit.

Rule 16: Faults and Sanctions

When participants commit faults during the game due to actions contrary to the rules or due to misconduct, the first referee judges the faults and determines. The sanction is applicable in accordance with the following principles:
16.1 Faults: Each fault, as specified below in this rule-set, has to be penalised by the referee through awarding one point to the opposite side.
16.2 Game Faults: These are individual actions or team movements contrary to the rules of the game and they consist of:
16.2.1 Not sending the koit correctly over the net into the opponent’s court.
16.2.3 Carrying out an action, which is not stipulated in the rules.
16.3 Consequences of a Fault:
16.3.1 There is always a penalty to a fault.
16.3.2 A penalty for a game fault means that the opponent(s) to the player/team committing the fault gains a point.
16.4 Misbehaviors towards officials, opponent(s), spectators or teammates shall be an offence and the sanction(s) thereof will be as follows:
16.4.1 Unsportsmanlike Conduct: If a participant delays the game, coaches his teammate at a time when it is forbidden, shouts, argues or disputes the decisions of the referee(s) or his assistants it will be construed as unsportsmanlike behaviour.
16.4.2 Offensive Conduct: If any aggressive attempt at the personal honour of the referee or his assistant is made by a player by means of insulting words and gestures to a referee, his assistants, opponent or spectator, it will be construed as Offensive Conduct.
16.4.3 Aggression: If a real physical attack or an initiated aggression against the referee or his assistants, an opponent or the spectator is made; it will be construed as an aggression.
16.5 Sanctions for Misconduct: Depending upon the degree of the misconduct according to the judgement of the first referee the sanctions to be applied are:
16.5.1 Warning for unsportsmanlike Conduct: No penalty is given but it warns the player(s) or team from a second unsportsmanlike conduct for the remainder of the set/match.
16.5.2 Penalty for offensive mis-conduct must be registered on the Score sheet and the opposing team will gain a point.
16.5.3 Expulsion: For committing twice offensive misconduct is sanctioned by Expulsion and it means the opponent wins the set and match.
16.5.4 Disqualification: Aggression is sanctioned by disqualification, and it means that the player is debarred from the Championship.
16.6 Sanction scale (Mis-conduct scale): The repetition of a misconduct by the same member of the team during the same set call for the gradual application of the sanction scale.


Rule 17: Referees and Refereeing

Rule 17 Refereeing Corps-Procedures and Official Hand Signals:  Referees are the authorized representatives of the sports/ games organization, which has deputed them to officiate the matches. Referees, as their very designation implies, are expected to be impartial to the core. While carrying out their duties they shall remain calm, cool and composed under testing circumstances and maintain their balance of mind when it is disturbed by provocations, intimidations and the like, from the players or spectators or from any other sources. They shall maintain good relationship with his assistants, managers, coaches, captains and players by their pleasing manners on the courts. They shall wear proper uniform as approved by the Tenni-koit Federation of India.

17.1 Composition of the refereeing corps Diagram 5
The refereeing corps for a match shall be composed of the following officials:

One First Referee, One Second Referee, One Scorer and two or four Linesman.
17.2 Refereeing procedures:
a) The first referee gives the signal for the service that begins the rally.

b) The First and Second referee signal the end of the rally, provided they are sure that a fault has been committed and provided further they identify its nature.
c) to indicate that they authorize or reject a team request and
d) The first referee may do so in order to give a warning or to penalize a misconduct by a member or by a team.
e) the nature of the fault with official signal
f) Signal which player or team wins a point
g) the team serving next
17.3 Referees Official hand Signals:
The referee and linesman must indicate by the official hand signals the nature of the faults called or the purpose of the interruptions authorized as shown in diagram No. 6.1 to 25.

Rule 18: First and Second Referee

18.1 Position:
The first referee carries out his duties seated or standing on a referee’s stand located at one end of the net. His view must be approximately 18” above the level of the upper edge of the net.
18.2 The second referee performs his duties standing on the opposite side, facing the first referee.
At the moment the koit is served he must be along the extension of the front side of the receiving team.
Afterwards, he may move in front of the scorer, along the free zone. Authority of the First Referee
18.2.1 He directs the match from beginning to end and has authority over all officials of the refereeing corps and members of both the teams.
18.2.2 He has the power to decide any matter not provided for in these rules.
18.2.3 During the match, his decisions based on the rules are final and he is authorized to overrule the decisions of other officials if he feels that they are incorrect. He may even replace official if the latter is not performing his duties properly.
18.2.4 He is the only person responsible for determining, before and during the match, whether or not the playing court is in proper condition for play.
18.2.5 The first and second referee will check before and during the match that the koit meets the prescribed regulations.
18.3 Responsibilities of First Referee
a) He shall inspect the conditions of the playing court and game equipment’s and satisfy himself that they are all right. He shall customarily introduce himself to his assistants, captains, coaches and players. He shall assist the players and Captains to get themselves introduced.
b) He shall toss the coin to decide the choice of court/ service by the winner(s) of the toss and direct scorer to note the result of toss and choice of winner(s) of the toss, in the Score Sheet.
c) In case of Doubles, he shall ascertain from the rival teams as to who will be serving first and who will be receiving at the commencement of the first set and pass on the information to the scorer for noting in the score sheet.
d) In the absence of the second referee, he shall take the charge himself.
18.3.2 During the Match: The First Referee
a) Is empowered to signal and penalize all the game faults.
b) Is the only person empowered to decide upon faults involving the server doing line cross while taking service.
c) Shall decide whether the koit has dropped in the Dead Court or not.
d) Shall not recognize any disputes over the nature of the faults but at the request of the Captain he will accept a request about the interpretation and application of the rules.
e) If the Captain disagrees with an interpretation of the rules and asks to register the fact on the Score Sheet, he must give authorization for the protest to be registered at the end of the match.
18.4 Authority and Responsibility of the Second Referee:
He is the assistant to the First Referee.
18.4.1 He checks the player’s position in Doubles before & during the set as well as when the change of court is made.
18.4.2 He shall assist the first referee in counting the 9 rallies after the expiry of 15 minutes allowed for a set. He shall suspend play if a point is not scored by the server within 9 rallies.
18.4.3 He will see whether a koit has passed through the net or not.
18.4.4 He will also see whether the players are crossing Dead Court or not.
18.4.5 He controls the number of time-outs used for each occasion and reports this data to the first referee and coaches during official time-outs.
18.4.6 He rejects improper requests for interruptions or authorizes or controls the duration of those interruptions that have been properly requested.
18.4.7 He supervises the behaviour of the members of each team seated on the player’s bench and reports any misconduct to the first referee.

Rule 19: Scorer

19.0 Scorer: The scorer keeps the Score Sheet according to the rules making all necessary recordings to control the game.
19.1 The scorer performs his duties seated at the scorer’s table on opposite side and facing the first referee. Diagram No. 5.
19.2 Authority:
19.2.1 He records the time-outs granted to each team and notifies the first referee.
19.2.2 He co-operates with the second referee in controlling official interruptions, registrations on the Score Sheet and reports to the first referee, coaches and public.
19.3 Responsibilities:
19.3.1 Prior to the Match and Set:
a) He shall arrange the lineup in Doubles Game.
19.3.2 During the Match: The Scorer
a) Records the points scored by each player/team and ensures that the scoreboard indicates the right score.
b) Records time-outs and controls their numbers.
c) Announces the change of courts at the end of each set and when a team scores the 11th point in the deciding set.
19.3.3 At the end of the match: The Scorer
a) Records the final game result.
b) In case of an eventual claim, the scorer writes or allows the writing on the score sheet of the Captains personal statement in connection with the facts protested during the course of the game.
c) Secures the signatures of the referees and those of the team captains.

Rule 20 & 21: Linesman

Linesmen: They are responsible for signaling faults assigned to them.
20.1 Location: See diagram No.5
20.1.1 Two or four linesmen sit on the chair in the free zone between
Two to three feet from each corner of the court on the
Imaginary extension of the line they control.
20.1.2 The linesmen performs their duties by means of signals for koit-in and koit-out as shown in the diagram No.6.
21.1 Protests shall not normally be entertained on matters of fact or accuracy of judgement. They shall be entertained only on technical aspects like ineligibility of players, use of Colour Koits etc.
21.2 Protests should contain all information for their proper disposal and should be noted by the team captain in writing on the Score Sheet immediately at the end of the match.
21.3 The First Referee, on his part, shall submit his report to the Jury of Appeal with all facts to enable the latter to take correct decision on the protests. The decision of the jury of appeal shall be final and binding on all parties.